Starting and stopping the system

Restoring critical security database files

If the system startup process reports that security database files are missing, follow these steps:

  1. First attempt to verify the ``UNIX Run Time System'' component of your SCO system using the Software Manager or the custom(ADM) command line:

    custom -v quick SCO:Unix:RTS -x

    The custom verify command will repair any broken symbolic links that may have rendered the files unreachable. custom leaves a copy of the verify output in custom.VerifyReport.

    NOTE: If the files /etc/passwd or /etc/group are missing from the system, the custom command will fail. (For /etc/group, the command will take a very long time to complete.) If it does, use one of these commands to restore the symbolic link manually:

    ln -s /var/opt/K/SCO/Unix/*/etc/passwd /etc/passwd
    ln -s /var/opt/K/SCO/Unix/*/etc/group /etc/group

    If the process is successful, enter <Ctrl>D to continue the startup process. If files are actually missing from the system and not just a consequence of a broken link, the error messages will persist and the files must be restored from backups (step 2) or from the original distribution files (step 3).

  2. Attempt to restore the files from your backups. For example, if the system reported that the file /etc/auth/system/files was missing and you had a backup of the root filesystem, run the Backup Manager to restore it as described in ``Restoring files from a scheduled filesystem backup''. You can also restore the file from the command line by inserting the first volume of your last full backup of the root filesystem into the tape drive and entering:

    cd /
    cpio -idv -I /dev/rct0 etc/auth/system/files

  3. If backups are unavailable or you find your backups are unreadable, it is possible to restore the original distribution files. These files are located in the software storage object for the ``UNIX Run Time System'' component of your SCO system. Enter this command:

    cd /opt/K/SCO/Unix/*/.softmgmt/var

    Now use the appropriate copy commands to restore your lost files:

    cp etc/auth/system/default /etc/auth/system/default
    cp auth/system/files /etc/auth/system/files
    cp auth/system/devassign /etc/auth/system/devassign
    cp auth/system/authorize /etc/auth/system/authorize
    cp etc/group /etc/group
    cp etc/passwd /etc/passwd

    If you are missing /etc/default/accounts, enter these commands:

    cd /opt/K/SCO/Unix_adm/*/.softmgmt/var/etc/sysadm.d/account
    cp accounts /etc/default/accounts

    NOTE: The original distribution files will not contain any changes you have made to your system -- you will have to add them again. For example, groups added to /etc/group or users in /etc/passwd. For /etc/passwd, you can use the Protected Password database entries to get the information:

    cd /tcb/files/auth
    grep u_id */*

    This lists all the accounts on the system and their UIDs (u_id). Ignore the system accounts like root and bin. The remaining accounts can be added by editing /etc/passwd manually, or by running the Account Manager and adding the users (making sure to enter the correct UID and use the existing home directories instead of creating new ones).

  4. Repeat step 1 to make sure all the symbolic links are intact. If the system is still in single-user mode, enter <Ctrl>D and continue with system startup as described in ``Checking the security databases'', step 4. If you are already in multiuser mode, run this command to repair any remaining inconsistencies:

    authck -a -y

Next topic: System fails to boot or displays ``NO OS'' message
Previous topic: About missing or corrupted system files

© 2003 Caldera International, Inc. All rights reserved.
SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.7 -- 11 February 2003