Kernel initialization check letters

Kernel initialization check letters

Each time the kernel starts, it checks the hardware that it expects to find in the system, initializes various kernel tables, mounts the root filesystem, opens the swap device, and prints configuration information. At each stage of checking, the kernel displays a letter (plus a message if the stage is subdivided). The process normally pauses for a while at certain letters if lengthy checks or initialization are involved. However, if the process stops and does not continue at a particular letter, this usually indicates a problem with the initialization of the corresponding device driver.

The following list describes the meanings of the kernel startup letters:

Check for 10 bits of I/O decoding by writing to and reading from the direct memory access (DMA) controller channel 0 page table address register (I/O port 0x87).

Perform machine-specific initializations. If the initialization stops here, there is a hardware problem. This may be resolved by running hardware tests available on reference or setup floppy disks from the hardware manufacturer.

Print configuration information for the numeric coprocessor (80287, 80387, 80487SX, Weitek, or built-in), if any. Also perform machine-specific multiprocessor memory initialization.

If a coprocessor is present but not recognized, confirm that it is properly connected and that your hardware recognizes it. Refer to your floating point processor documentation for available tests.

Initialize pseudo-devices and I/O devices by calling their corresponding driver initialization functions.

If a failure occurs at this stage, check the relevant devices to see if they are incorrectly configured or non-functioning. Refer to the documentation for the relevant hardware for more information.

The format of the startup ``F'' messages is:

Message Description
driverinit Initialize configured driver
BTLD init Initialize boot-time loadable driver
driverinit2 Link SCSI peripheral driver to SCSI host adapter

Initialize the Programmable Interrupt Controller (PIC) chips and multiprocessors, configure root disk driver, and reset keyboard.

Initialize various system resources:

Message Description
oeminit OEM-specific features
cinit character lists (clists)
inoinit inodes

fsinit filesystems
fstyp init filesystem of type fstyp
finit file table
strinit STREAMS

ksl init kernel STREAMS linker (ksl__start)
iinit open root device, load superblock into memory and mount the root filesystem. If the root device is a hard disk, display configuration message. If the system hangs here, suspect a damaged, missing, or incorrectly configured root device. Also reset system clock from hardware clock.

flckinit file locking
seminit IPC semaphores

msginit IPC messages
xsdinit XENIX shared data

xseminit XENIX semaphores

cfgmsginit print configuration error messages if too many groups or open files are defined. Print a warning message if too many memory ranges were specified at boot time.

Print any machine-specific information, invoke the driver start routine for certain devices, and print total kernel memory and user memory.

The format of the startup ``I'' messages is:

Message Description
driverstart Start driver
BTLD start Start boot-time loadable driver

Initialize floating point emulator.

Open the swap device, add it to the swap file table, and print information about it.

Initialize machine-specific memory ECC support.

Print information on root, pipe, dump devices, clock interrupt rate (HZ), kernel I/O buffers, and additional CPUs found.

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SCO OpenServer Release 5.0.7 -- 11 February 2003